Biography Of John Adams

John Adams (born on October 30, 1735, passed away on July 4, 1826, and the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father of the U.S. of America. He was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain before his presidency.

Biography Of John Adams

Adams served the U.S. government as a senior diplomat in Europe during the latter part of the Revolutionary War and in the early years of the new nation. He was the first person to hold the office of vice president of the United States, serving from 1789 to 1797. He was committed to keeping a diary and frequently communicated with significant figures of his time, such as his wife and advisor, Abigail Adams, as well as his friend and political opponent, Thomas Jefferson.

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Early years and Educational Background

John Adams was born into the family of John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston on the 30th of October, 1735. He was born on the family farm in Braintree, Massachusetts, and had two younger brothers, Peter and Elihu. Adams’ father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, and a lieutenant in the militia, and his mother was from a leading medical family in present-day Brookline, Massachusetts.

At age six, Adams began his formal education at a dame school, conducted at a teacher’s home and centered on The New England Primer. Afterwards, he attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly. The studies included Latin, rhetoric, logic, and arithmetic. Adams received his early education, during which he occasionally skipped school, did not get along with his teacher, and wanted to pursue farming. However, his father insisted that he continue his education.

Deacon Adams (John Adams’ father) employed Joseph Marsh (a new schoolmaster), and his son responded positively. Adams later noted that “as a child, I enjoyed perhaps the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men—that of a mother who was anxious and capable of forming the characters of her children.”

College Education and Adulthood

In 1751, when Adams was sixteen years old, he got into Harvard College, studying under Joseph Mayhew. He was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato, Cicero, and Tacitus in their original languages. When he graduated with an A.B. degree in 1755, his father anticipated that he would be a minister.

However, while he was thinking about his ultimate vocation, he temporarily taught school in Worcester. When the French and Indian War began in 1754 (aged nineteen), Adams felt guilty because he was the first in his family not to be a militia officer; he said, “I longed more ardently to be a soldier than I ever did to be a lawyer.”.

Legal Profession and Matrimony

Biography Of John Adams

Adams began reading law in 1756, under a leading lawyer in Worcester, James Putnam. In 1758, he earned an A.M. from Harvard, and in 1759, he was called to the bar. Diary writing was one of Adams early developed habits; this included his impressions of James Otis Jr.’s (1761) challenge to the legality of British writs of assistance, allowing the British to search a home without notice or reason.

Otis’s argument inspired Adams to consider the cause of the American colonies. In 1763, he went into aspects of political theory in seven essays written for Boston newspapers. He ridiculed the selfish thirst for power he perceived among the Massachusetts colonial elite under the pen name “Humphrey Ploughjogger.”.

In the late 1750s, Adams fell in love with Hannah Quincy; he was ready to ask for her hand in marriage, but his friends interrupted and the perfect moment slipped away. In 1759, he met 15-year-old Abigail Smith, his third cousin, through his friend Richard Cranch, who was courting Abigail’s older sister. At first, Adams did not find Abigail and her two sisters impressive, writing that they were not “fond, nor frank, nor candid.”.

Adams, later on, grew close to Abigail. And they got married on the 25th of October, 1764, even though Abigail’s mother opposed the wedding. The pair shared a love of books and proved honest in their praise and criticism of each other. After his father’s death in 1761, he inherited a 9+ 1/2-acre (3.8 ha) farm and a house, where they lived until 1783.

John Adams, a Remarkable Political Philosopher

Adams served in France and Holland in diplomatic roles during the Revolutionary War and helped negotiate the treaty of peace. He was minister to the Court of St. James’s from 1785 to 1788, returning to be elected Vice President under George Washington.

The two terms Adams spent as Vice President were frustrating experiences for a man of his vigor, intellect, and vanity. Complaining to his wife Abigail, he said, “My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.”

The war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas when Adams became president, and there was intense partisanship among contending factions within the nation. His administration focused on France, where the Directory, the ruling group, had refused to receive the American envoy and had suspended commercial relations.

The nation broke out into what Jefferson called “the X. Y. Z. fever,” increased in intensity by Adams’s exhortations. The populace cheered itself hoarse wherever the president appeared. Never had the Federalists been so popular.

Biography Of John Adams

Adams sent three commissioners to France, but in the spring of 1798, word arrived that the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand and the Directory had refused to negotiate with them unless they would first pay a substantial bribe. Adams reported the insult to Congress, and the Senate printed the correspondence, in which the Frenchmen were referred to only as “X, Y, and Z.”

Congress funded new frigates and additional ships, and allowed for the creation of a provisional army. It also enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts to intimidate foreign agents and suppress attacks from Republican editors. President Adams did not seek a declaration of war, but conflict started at sea. Initially, American shipping was vulnerable to French privateers, but by 1800, armed merchant ships and U.S. warships were securing the sea routes.

Sending a peace mission to France brought the full fury of the Hamiltonians against Adams. In the campaign of 1800, the Republicans were united and effective, while the Federalists were badly divided. Nevertheless, Adams polled only a few fewer electoral votes than Jefferson, who became president.

Adams arrived in the new capital city to take up residence in the White House on November 1, 1800, just before the election. He wrote his wife, “Before I end my letter, I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.” during his second night in the incomplete, humid chambers.

Adams withdrew to his estate in Quincy, where he composed his extensive correspondence with Thomas Jefferson. It was there, on July 4, 1826, that he uttered his final words: “Thomas Jefferson lives on.” However, unbeknownst to Adams, Jefferson had passed away at Monticello just a few hours before.

I hope this biography of John Adams provides you with the necessary information and knowledge you need. Thanks for reading, and I’ll see you in the next one!

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